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H&R Block CAFA Class Action Defense Cases–Marshall v. H&R Block: Illinois Federal Court Remands Class Action To State Court Holding Modifications To Class Definition Did Not Support Removal Under Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA)

Trial Court Amendments to Class Definitions in Response to Defense Motion to Decertify Class Action did not Create a “New Action” Sufficient to Justify Removal under Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 (CAFA) Illinois Federal Court Holds

Plaintiffs filed a state court class action complaint against H&R Block Tax Services in January 2002 alleging “statutory fraud by omission in violation of the Illinois Consumer Fraud Act (‘ICFA’) and ‘the substantially similar statutes of specific sister states’ and breach of fiduciary duty.” Marshall v. H&R Block Tax Services Inc., ___ F.Supp.2d ___ (S.D.Ill. December 17, 2008) [Slip Opn., at 2]. According to the allegations underlying the class action, H&R Block sold a “Peace of Mind” (POM) guarantee – an “extended-warranty product under which consumers are paid additional taxes owed as a result of a tax-preparation error.” Id., at 1. The state court granted plaintiffs’ motion to certify the litigation as a class action, and subsequently partially granted a defense motion to decertify the class action. Id. Following partial decertification of the class action, defense attorneys removed the class action to federal court claiming removal jurisdiction under the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 (CAFA); according to H&R Block’s theory, “the decertification order greatly increased its potential liability for POM sales with which it had no involvement, which commenced a new, removable cause of action.” Id., at 1-2. Plaintiffs’ moved to remand the class action to federal court, arguing that “the state court’s August 5, 2008 decertification order narrowed the action from a multistate class to a thirteen-state class”; accordingly, it did not constitute the commencement of a new action for purposes of removal under CAFA. Id., at 1. The district court granted the motion and remanded the class action to state court.

After summarizing the applicable legal standard, see Marshall, at 2-4, the district court noted that the defense removed the class action based on the state court’s decision to amend the class definition to address, in part, the defense motion to decertify, id., at 4. The defense argued “[the] amended class definitions commenced a new action by expanding the scope of Block’s potential liability to include the acts of entities merely affiliated with Block as well as independent franchisees.” Id. According to the federal court, the state court believed that his modifications to the class definitions “related back to Plaintiffs’ amended complaint” and “expressly set forth his rationale for limiting the Plaintiff Classes to make the action more manageable and to eliminate from the action those states where applicable laws differed significantly.” Id., at 7. The federal court rejected defense arguments that the new class definitions “greatly increased” H&R Block’s liability and thus constituted a new lawsuit within the meaning of CAFA. Id., at 7-9. Put simply, the amendments to class definitions did not add any “new or different POM transactions” to the case; accordingly, the class action “does not fall within the ambit of ‘sufficiently independent of the original contentions that it must be treated as fresh litigation.’” Id., at 10 (citation omitted). In sum, “Block has identified no basis for the Court to conclude that the state court’s modification of the classes commenced a new, removable action.” Id. Accordingly, it remanded the class action to state court, id., at 11.

NOTE: The district court refused to award plaintiffs’ attorney fees incurred in connection with the remand motion because it found the removal “was not objectively unreasonable.” Marshall, at 10-11.

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