District Court Erred in Dismissing Class Action Based on Arbitration Clause in Credit Card Agreement and Class Action Waiver in Arbitration Clause because New Jersey Law rather than Utah Law Applied and, under Facts Underlying Class Action Complaint, New Jersey would not Enforce Class Action Arbitration Waiver Third Circuit Holds
Plaintiff filed a class action against American Express and American Express Centurion Bank (collectively “Amex”) alleging violations of New Jersey’s Consumer Fraud Act; the class action complaint asserted that Amex misrepresented the terms of its “Blue Cash” credit card reward program, which allegedly promised customers up to 5% cash back on purchases made with the card. Homa v. American Express Co., ___ F.3d ___, 2009 WL 440912, *1 (3d Cir. February 24, 2009). According to the allegations underlying the class action, plaintiff (a New Jersey resident filing the putative class action on behalf of other New Jersey residents) was denied “failed to award him the promised amount of cash back in violation of the New Jersey Consumer Fraud Act.” Id. The credit card underlying the class action claims was subject to a cardholder agreement that required arbitration of any disputes and that included a class action waiver, requiring that any claim “be arbitrated on an individual basis … [with] no right or authority for any Claims to be arbitrated [as] a class action.” Id. The Agreement included also a choice-of-law provision that stated Utah law governed any disputes, id. Defense attorneys moved to compel arbitration of the putative class action claims on individual basis; the defense argued in part that Utah law expressly permits class action arbitration waivers in consumer credit agreements. Id. Plaintiff opposed the motion on the ground New Jersey law would prohibit enforcement of the class action waiver and that application of Utah law to deny class action relief would violate New Jersey’s public policy. Id. The district court treated the motion as a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6) and granted the motion, dismissing the class action complaint with prejudice. Id. Plaintiff appealed and the Third Circuit reversed.
According to the Third Circuit, “This appeal raises important issues under state law. Nevertheless, we must first consider whether the Federal Arbitration Act (‘FAA’), 9 U.S.C. §§ 1-16, precludes this Court from applying state law unconscionability principles to void a class-arbitration waiver. We conclude that it does not.” Homa, at *1 (citing Doctor’s Associates, Inc. v. Casarotto, 517 U.S. 681, 687 (1996)). As part of that analysis, the Circuit Court determined whether Utah law or New Jersey law governed the dispute. Id., at *2-*3. The Court concluded that “the Supreme Court of New Jersey might well find that the application of Utah law allowing class-arbitration waivers in the context of a low-value consumer credit suit violates a fundamental policy of New Jersey.” Id., at *3 (footnote omitted). But the Third Circuit found also that it must first address whether “the FAA and this Court’s decision in Gay v. CreditInform, 511 F.3d 369 (3d Cir. 2007), preclude us from applying New Jersey unconscionability principles to a class-arbitration waiver.” Id. Based on its analysis of the FAA, id., at *3-*5, the Circuit Court held that its prior decision in Gay does not preclude the Court from relying on New Jersey law to invalidate the class action arbitration waiver, id., at *5. And the Court further concluded that if New Jersey law governed the dispute then the district court erred in granting the motion to dismiss the class action because “the class-arbitration waiver violates fundamental New Jersey public policy as applied to small-sum cases,” id., at *6. So the critical issue was whether Utah law or New Jersey law applied.
In analyzing the respective interests of the states involved, the Third Circuit stated, “It is not unreasonable to assume that the Utah law was enacted because of policies honoring freedom-of-contract principles and intending to protect Utah banks from unwarranted class-action suits.” Homa, at *6. Nonetheless, the Court concluded that the New Jersey Supreme Court would apply New Jersey law, because it would find “that New Jersey has a materially greater interest than Utah in the enforceability of a class-arbitration waiver that could operate to preclude a New Jersey consumer from relief under the NJCFA.” Id., at *7. The Circuit Court therefore reversed the district court order dismissing the class action complaint and compelling arbitration on an individual basis, but remanded the case for the district court to determine, applying New Jersey law, whether to refer the matter to arbitration at all. Id., at *7-*9 (Weis, J., concurring).